St Gabriel's Primary is a government-aided Catholic school run by the Brothers of St Gabriel. St Gabriel's School opened its doors on 3 June 1953 to its first intake of 212 pupils who attended classes ranging from Primary One to Standard Two under the supervision of Rev Bro Louis Gonzaga and seven pioneer teachers. The school was then located at the junction of Hillside Drive and Upper Serangoon Road.
When the enrolment of the school rose to over two thousand pupils in the 1960s, it became necessary to provide more space and facilities for the pupils. A project to build a separate primary school was launched. On 2 January 1969, the whole of the primary section of St Gabriel's School comprising 31 classes with an enrolment of 1350 pupils moved into the new building at the junction of Highland Road and Yio Chu Kang Road. The primary school was blessed by Archbishop Michael Olcomendy and officially declared open by the Hon Parliamentary Secretary, Ministry of Labour and Member of Parliament for Upper Serangoon, Mr Sia Kah Hui on 12 July 1969.
On 2 January 1988, the 31 classes and 1350 pupils of the school moved to its premises in Lorong Chuan. The official opening celebration of the school was held on 29 September 1989. The school was blessed by the Archbishop of Singapore, Rt Rev Gregory Yong, and declared open by Dr Lee Boon Yang, Senior Minister of State, Ministry of National Development and Home Affairs.
On 19 November 2003, the school moved to its holding site at 30 Parry Avenue while the school undergoes PRIME. In November 2005, the school moved back to new buildings and improved facilities at its Lorong Chuan premises.
The school is streamlining all its programme to achieve the school mission and vision. The school management team is continually refining the school's strategic plan to ensure that all programmes are aligned to the school and the Ministry's objectives.